The More Low Back Levels You Have Fused the More Likely You Are to Need More Fusion

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long term fusion risk

Sometimes medicine isn’t rocket science, but common sense. Take for example the idea that the more levels in a low back you fuse, the more damage can be done over time to surrounding structures. You don’t need an MD or a PhD to see that this makes intuitive sense. However, despite this, we’re seeing surgeons fuse more levels than ever. So this morning we’ll go over recent research that throws some water on the multilevel fusion parade.

Defining Spine Structure and Back Fusion

The spine consists of a column of stacked bones called vertebrae, and the column stretches from the neck all the way down to the tailbone. There are five segments: cervical (7 bones), thoracic (12 bones), lumbar (5 bones), sacrum (5 fused bones), and coccyx (the 4 fused bones that make up the tailbone). Their purpose is to provide structure for the body and to protect the big bundle of nerves that threads through the middle of the column called the spinal cord. Between each vertebra, we have intervertebral discs, which cushion the vertebrae as we move and absorb shock.

While the terminology spinal column likely brings to mind a stick-straight structure, the spinal column is not straight. It actually has gentle snake-like curves to the front and back that provide counterbalance and aid with movement, balance, and shock absorption. In short, the spinal column is made for flexibility and movement.

The purpose of a spinal fusion, on the other hand, is to stop movement. A one-level fusion removes the disc between two vertebrae and uses screws and other hardware to force the two vertebrae together, which then fuse into one structure. A two-level fuses three vertebrae, three-level fuses four vertebrae, and so on. So is it really that big of a deal if we lose movement and flexibility in a few vertebrae? After all we have lots of vertebrae back there. Well, yes, it’s a big problem. Let me explain.

Fusion Can Cause Adjacent Segment Disease

A fusion forces the adjacent vertebral segments (those above and below the fusion) to take on the extra stress and become overloaded with additional work they were never intended to do. When this occurs, this is called adjacent segment disease (ASD), and it may be accompanied by pain, bone spurs, arthritis, and so on. As it advances you are likely to start hearing your doctor throw out the F word again—another fusion. And next thing you know, you’re chasing your ASD up or down your spine. So, yes, one fusion is one fusion too many. And if you’ve already had one fusion, this doesn’t mean you have to say yes to another one. In fact, the long term fusion risk is that it will just create bigger and bigger problems down the road. See the video below for visuals and more information on ASD.

While I’ve highlighted many other studies on ASD following fusions, today’s feature study takes this a step further, looking at the connections between the number of fused levels and the increased risk of more fusions resulting from ASD. Let’s take a look .

Long-Term Fusion Risk: The More Levels Fused, the Greater the Risk for More Fusions

The new study investigated the occurrence of adjacent segment disease (ASD) following short lumbar fusion surgery. Specifically, how often does ASD following fusion result in additional fusions? The study defines “short fusion” as three or fewer fused levels. Researchers followed 479 subjects after short fusions. A total of 37 subjects (7.7%) underwent surgeries for ASD that developed after their initial fusion surgery.

The result? Subjects whose initial fusion included three segments were 2.7 times more likely to undergo ASD fusion surgery than those with one or two fused segments. So the more lumbar levels you have fused, the more likely you are to need additional fusions. Additionally, subjects with rheumatoid arthritis fared even worse, with a 4.5 times greater risk of more fusions.

Spinal Fusion is Irreversible: A Few More Reasons You Should Say No to Fusion

Adjacent segment disease aside, long term fusion risk includes many additional important issues. A few of these follow:

The upshot? Robert Heinlein once wrote that war was the last resort of the incompetent. Meaning that it was so awful that we needed to make sure that we place it in a special place in our minds so it never or only rarely happens. I would edit that for spine surgery and write that fusion is the last resort of the incompetent spine surgeon. Meaning that fusing a spine to treat pain is NEVER a good thing and that we need to make sure it occupies a special place in our minds so that we avoid it at all costs. If you have to fuse, then fuse one or two levels at most. However, given that we have surgeons fusing four, five, or six levels routinely, we have an awful lot of incompetent spine surgeons out there! So as a patient, please be smarter than your surgeon. Make sure he or she only gets to fuse one or, at maximum, two levels by refusing to have more than that fused! Or at the very least, get multiple opinions from both spine surgeons and nonsurgeons who don’t know each other. In the end, avoid big fusions!

This blog post provides general information to help the reader better understand regenerative medicine, musculoskeletal health, and related subjects. All content provided in this blog, website, or any linked materials, including text, graphics, images, patient profiles, outcomes, and information, are not intended and should not be considered or used as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Please always consult with a professional and certified healthcare provider to discuss if a treatment is right for you.

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24 thoughts on “The More Low Back Levels You Have Fused the More Likely You Are to Need More Fusion

  1. Edith(Edy)Johnson

    I agree 100 percent!!

  2. Dane

    Any indication the insurance companies are becoming reluctant to cover this?

    1. Regenexx Team

      There is in theory preliminary treatment criteria in place for approval. However, it has not have prevented the widespread use of RFA and all of it’s iterations.

  3. Bryan

    I see a lot of articles talking about how bad fusions are so my question is what are the other options? I have spondy and PT has not helped, shots have not helped. So other options would one have?

  4. Ri

    Only wish you were my doc 17 years ago! I’ve been in pain ever since!

  5. Andrea

    I feel the same way
    I had to leave a very good job
    I have no life. In pain every minute of the day

  6. Richard Muenchow

    I have 4 fusions S1-L3 my L2 is collapsing mild stenosis and C4-C5 same a L2. I don’t understand why Doctor’s think there is a fix. Ablations only hide the pain temporarily. I been diagnosed with DDD which everyone acts as if it’s treatable. Snake oil. Doctor’s by the hundreds, and send you back to work, only to do more damage. once you reached 4 levels of fusion., Have to be permanently disabled, not to excel the degeneration. Especially when signs of more degeneration is visable

    1. Regenexx Team

      Hi Richard,
      We couldn’t agree more! We can often help with the Adjacent Segment Disease and with DDD. Please see: and To see if we could help in your case, please give us a call at 855 622 7838 or submit the Candidate form here:

  7. Donald Dierinzo

    Great article!! I’ve been fused from T8 to L8 I had a compressed spinal cord in my thoracic region along with stenosis etc. My second surgery was L3 to L5 I’m unable to stand without my left leg hurting like he//. What are my uptions?

    1. Regenexx Team

      Hi Donald,
      There’s a T8, but not an L8. We treat Adjacent Segment Disease, which is where the adjacent segments break down as a result of Fusion, regularly. Please see:
      https: // We’d need more information to advise on what your options would be. For us to do that, please use the Candidate button here:

  8. Karen

    I was a passenger in a car accident at 16 and smashed my face into the windshield (Seatbelts weren’t mandatory back then).

    At 47 and running out of options I started compressing my spinal cord at 3 level in my cervical region. I was living with excruciating arm pain so bad I wanted to cut my arm off.

    When I started to get “electric shocks” when I leaned my head down I went to see a Surgeon…I needed a cervical fusion of C3 – T1. 😔

    After surgery I can honestly say the pain was gone instantly. It was a tough surgery but I had my life back and I was back to work in 2 months. It has now been 2 years I am doing fantastic.

    My situation is different since I was at risk of paralysis without surgery but I did all 5 levels at one time and do not regret it. I will say the surgery has to be worth the (many) risks and not all situation need surgical intervention.

    1. Regenexx Team

      Glad to hear it helped in your case. If pain develops above or below the Fusion, we can usually help. Please see:

  9. Bob

    I am set for a 3 level lumbar fusion ALIF L3 L4 L5 S1 four well respected surgeons confirmed this operation I am very confused and my living with pain and not being able to walk more than 50 ft and having to stop because of pain has gone on for years.What do I do

    1. Regenexx Team

      Hi Bob,
      Fusion is sometimes needed but does not come without risk. In many cases the issue can be treated using your body’s own healing agents. Please see: and If you’d like to see if we could help in your case, please use the Are You A Regenexx Candidate link here:

  10. Brenda Teems

    In Sept. of 2018, I fell backward over my bathtub. Verabras 3 and 4 in my lower back were fractured. Surgery for compression was done. After over 3 months flat of my back, I came home. Fell again the surgeon did a 5 level fusion from L1 which was anchored to my pelvic bone on both sides. I was not told what was to be done other than a fusion.

    I live in constant pain. Sometimes, I feel like something is pulling bones our of place between my spine and hip.

    Never have this type of surgery. However, the main thing is to have someone you trust talk to the doctors in advanced. I was too medicated to understand much. I wish anyone who’s had fusions done the best
    May God bless you.

  11. Patricia Greco

    Going for no.2 fusion surgery, L3 & L4.

    In 2010, had 1st surgery. L4 & L5. Very successful.

    After 9 years pain free, this issues arose. Now using quad cane & have excruciating pain below waist. Can’t put weight on right foot.

    Just found this website. Anyone

    1. Regenexx Team

      Hi Patricia,
      Unfortunately, Fusion tends to lead to more Fusion, but we can often help. Please see: To see if we can help in your case, please use the Candidate button here: or give us a call at 855 622 7838.

  12. Don Dierinzo

    I am fused from T8 through L4 I guess 6 or 7 levels. My L 4/5 L5 S1 is not fused I have server buttocks pain, inflammation on my left plank area and leg and feet numbness. I am unable to walk without a walker but it hurts my left side. What should I do HELP!!!!!!

    1. Chris Centeno, MD Post author

      Don, I don’t give medical advice here, but you can schedule a Telemedicine visit to see if orthobiologics will help.

  13. Christopher D Cornelius

    I have had 4 back surgery the last one back in 2005 they fused t 11 an t12 an put plates in also l 4 an l5 now at t 11 t12 it feels like I have a baseball in my back losing range of motion bad an have a big bulge there

  14. Neal B.

    As a “very senior” fusion and fusion removal patient, (due to MRSA), and now technically savvy, I take some issue with this article’s statement. “Indicators such as pain, quality of life, and disability have been shown to be no better with a fusion than they are with conservative approaches alone.” Before making any decisions on treatment vs surgery, folks need to become very savvy on their particular spinal condition and dynamics. It begins with understanding imagery, how to read a MRI, report etc. and learning enough on the net or elsewhere, all be able to ask detailed questions. Knowledge is power.

  15. Mueller Judy

    I dont have any options. My neck now needs a C2 to T2. And my lower back now has a ruptured disc. My life seems to be closing in on me. Someone have any encouraging words for me?

    1. Chris Centeno, MD Post author

      I would get a second opinion via telemedicine as it’s very unlikely you need that large a fusion and highly likely that non-surgical options are still possible.

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