Can We Treat Severe Shoulder Arthritis Through an Injection?

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shoulder stem cell

Orthopedic surgeons have taught us that our bodies are just machines, like your car engine, and that when a part breaks down, it needs to be replaced. So they can’t conceptualize how a severely arthritic shoulder joint with no cartilage and huge bone spurs could be treated without replacing the shoulder. However, that’s not what we’ve observed. We’ve treated a good number of patients with severe shoulder arthritis who have been told they desperately need a shoulder replacement. How does that work? I’ll also explain that through a patient’s recent therapeutic experience.

The “Lost Cartilage=Lost Pain” Myth Is Alive and Well

As physicians, we have been taught that lost cartilage and bone spurs seen on an X-ray or MRI is the cause of joint pain. However, according to the two biggest government-funded studies we have, this isn’t true. In fact, when it comes to lost cartilage in the knee, patients who had no or little cartilage didn’t have any more pain than those with cartilage. Given that we have this research, why is everyone so focused on cartilage? Good question.

The Orthopedic Structural Paradigm Is Dying on the Vine

Orthopedic surgeons have taught us all that structure is everything. If you tear a ligament or tendon or have a hole in your cartilage, we need to fix these things with surgery. While sometimes that’s important, there’s also a problem. For example, the idea that we need to surgically “clean up” a joint because it has become arthritic was shown in 2002 to be no more effective than sham surgery. More recently the surgical management of a meniscus tear through getting it cut out surgically (meniscectomy) has also been shown to be ineffective. So why doesn’t all of this work? While there may be some truth to the structural model—for example, if a ligament is torn and causing instability, it may need to be fixed—the idea that what we see on the MRI equals pain, is not accurate.

Can We Treat Severe Shoulder Arthritis Without Joint Replacement Surgery?

A patient I spoke to this week to follow-up on a shoulder treatment is reminiscent of many we’ve seen over the last few years—a guy with severe shoulder arthritis with no cartilage, lost range of motion, large bone spurs, and shredded rotator cuff tendons. Despite all of this, at five months out from his treatment, he reports about 50% improvement. Most of that didn’t start until about four months after his precise stem cell injection. He can now do push-ups again and has returned to the triceps pulls he had stopped. How does this work? Especially since multiple surgeons have told him that he needs a shoulder replacement? It works because the orthopedic structural model is only a little right but mostly wrong.

What’s Right and Wrong About the Orthopedic Structural Model?

If we use this shoulder as an example, we can easily see where the orthopedic structural model works and where it fails. Where it works is the idea that this guy’s large bone spurs prevent motion in the joint. We did little to change his range of motion. Also, without removing those bone spurs, we would never be able to improve his range of motion with an injection.

Where it fails is the idea that this patient’s pain is due to what his joint looks like on MRI. That’s mostly not true. For example, look at a study that demonstrated that the single biggest factor predicting whether a surgical rotator cuff repair worked was not whether the tendon looked better on MRI after the surgery, but in fact the chemical makeup of the shoulder joint! So even if we can’t regrow this guy’s shoulder cartilage, does it matter? So how was he helped? I’d like to posit two mechanisms based on the research in this area and what we’ve observed for the last 12 years. First, we cleaned up the chemical environment of the shoulder by changing it from a toxic witches brew of breakdown to one that can sustain itself. Second, we were likely able to mend small tears in his rotator cuff and provide better mechanical tolerance to load. Given that most of his pain came from those two sources, the pain goes down and the function goes up.

Why Not Just Get It Over with and Replace the Shoulder?

This guy’s shoulder looks trashed on MRI, so why not just get it over with and replace it with a nice, shiny new one? First, amputating his joint and replacing it with metal, plastic, or ceramic is a huge surgery with major side effects at least 100–1,000X more significant than an injection. Second, shoulder-replacement outcomes are some of the worst of all the major joints. So the idea of going back to intense upper-body workouts, like triceps machines and push-ups, is not really tenable with a hunk of metal where his natural shoulder now lives.

The upshot? This patient’s orthopedic surgeon just told him to wait and see if he gets any more relief before considering a replacement surgery. One of the things I love about regenerative medicine is that it causes us to rethink our assumptions. For far too long, we’ve put far too much stock in MRIs and X-rays. In fact, we built an entire surgical specialty called orthopedics on the idea that what the structure looks like is all important, until of course, the data we collect proves that to be mostly a figment of our imagination.

This blog post provides general information to help the reader better understand regenerative medicine, musculoskeletal health, and related subjects. All content provided in this blog, website, or any linked materials, including text, graphics, images, patient profiles, outcomes, and information, are not intended and should not be considered or used as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Please always consult with a professional and certified healthcare provider to discuss if a treatment is right for you.

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22 thoughts on “Can We Treat Severe Shoulder Arthritis Through an Injection?

  1. Barbara Banks

    Hi Dr. Centeno,
    Dr. Markle has treated my knees and neck with PRP. He said my shoulder was too far gone to be treated. This news today makes me wonder if things have changed since I was there in November. I do have severe arthritis in my left shoulder and have been told replacement was the only option. I’m still in TX for the winter but plan to be back in CO by April.

    1. Regenexx Team Post author

      I will inquire for you if Shoulder Candidacy has changed since Novemeber. Was he evaluating your shoulder for PRP, or stem cell treatment?

  2. chris

    You have said previously that bone is living. When you cleaned up the chemical environment and small tears, over time will this positive change allow the bone to remodel itself (i.e. decrease the bone spur)?

    1. Regenexx Team Post author

      In the sense that bone reacts to it’s environment. In functional bone spurs when the forces and signals which created the need to “shore up” the joint cease because the causative instability is treated, the additional bone becomes un-needed. One of the jobs of the Osteoclasts is to remove un-needed bone.

  3. Marge parker

    So how do you fix osteoarthritis in shoulder getting very painful and the only way the pain is reduced is with pain meds. ?? At 80 years of age another shoulder replacement is not something I look forward to facing. How are we able to have treatments that will help us continue to function and have pain free joints short of taking pain meds which in some cases are the only things that keep us from giving up on movement and life. Pain keeps us from life. No one seems to face that fact only that someone that is old may become addicted therefore all old people will become addicted so let’s make sure we appease them with meds that do nothing for pain then when it becomes apparent that those don’t work. Well maybe then we can give them something that really helps and they can again take pleasure in living again. Provided they are not to the point where morphine is the only option left.

    1. Regenexx Team Post author

      Unfortunately, pain meds cause chronic pain, which it sounds like has happened. If you can work with your doctor to successfully get off the pain medication, we can evaluate you for a procedure, to see if you’d be a Candidate. Please see:

  4. Frank G. Belcher

    I got left shoulder stem cells about 10 years ago at Centeno-Schultz clinic in Denver, now 81 years of age, the right shoulder is giving me fits. Still no pain in the left. I would return for right shoulder treatment in an instant if Medicare (together with my Medicare SUPPLEMENT WOULD PAY FOR IT ! ) What efforts are being done to tell our stupid government that stem cell introduction to a shoulder joint is far less costly than shoulder replacement ! This could save our government millions of dollars ! Perhaps President Trump needs to be acquainted with this and other stem cell procedures that eliminate expensive surgery. I am now a retiree on limited income and cannot even afford stem cell treatment, but my Medicare and Medicare supplement will cover 100% of the cost of shoulder replacement. If they can get stem cell transplant approved under Medicare, again, millions, maybe trillions of government dollars can be saved !

    1. Regenexx Team Post author

      Agree!! Hoping changes to the Healthcare law will be more patient centric.

  5. Preston Phelps

    Where can I find a doctor to do this procedure. I live in Alabama.

    1. Regenexx Team Post author


      Here’s the Interactive list of Regenexx providers:

  6. Byron

    Do you have a phone number so I can call and talk to somebody.

    1. Regenexx Team Post author

      Yes, it’s: 888 525 3005.

  7. Rose

    Is this treatment available in the UK and would I be a good candidate ? I have severe arthritis and a large bone spur in my left shoulder which restricts my daily life, including the most basic tasks like washing my hair, getting dressed (and I have clothes I can no longer wear as I can’t get my arm into them) and eating (I have difficulty lifting a fork to my mouth). I am also a photographer, a musician and a target rifle shooter – all of which activities are suffering due to pain and limited movement. I currently manage with 4 monthly cortisone injections, physiotherapy and Pilates; and I take Paracetamol for the pain when I need it – I have a gastric bypass so I can’t take NSAIDs. I am told that I tick all the boxes for a shoulder replacement but they don’t want to consider it yet because I’m too young (I’m 58). I am Osteopenic so replacement surgery is likely to be more complicated and I’ve been told that a replacement wouldn’t give me a full range of movement anyway ?

    1. Regenexx Team Post author

      Regenexx treatments aren’t currently available in the UK, though we are currently working on that. Regenexx is however available in Brussels, as Regenexx Europe opened recently. Most importantly Steroid injections escalate the problem. Please see: and Many factors go into Candidacy. To see if you would be a good Candidate, please submit the Candidate form.

  8. Mike Vogel

    Pleasese share what you have done to present evidence so that stem cell therapy should be covered via healthcare insurance.

    1. Regenexx Team Post author

      Regenexx® stem cell procedures have been studied extensively for more than a decade and our patients are part of the world’s largest human mesenchymal stem cell re-implantation database for orthopedic purposes. We are the only orthopedic stem cell providers with this volume of data to draw upon and to regularly summarize outcome data from our patient registry and make it available to the public.

  9. Mike

    I have pain in my right shoulder. It’s a nagging pain that is intermittent but not unbearable. After an MRI my Orthopedist said I have moderate shoulder osteoarthritis. Seeking a second opinion an Orthopedist said I was a candidate for shoulder replacement. That was over a year ago. Last summer, I went to one of the top Orthopedists in the country. He said “I needed a shoulder replacement like he needs a hole in his head.” I was much relieved but I still have this pain. I just went on Medicare and would have stem cell injections if Medicare would pay for it. At this time, I am not willing to have a prosthetic shoulder. I still have full range of motion and go to the gym five times a week. I just want to pain to go away. I’m willing to wait it out until Medicare decides to pay for PRP or stem cell injections.

    1. Regenexx Team Post author

      An exam to make sure your pain is coming from your shoulder arthritis is important as many people who have shoulder arthritis have no pain, and there are other issues that can cause shoulder pain. Shoulder replacement is one of the least successful of all joint replacements, but unfortunately, it looks like it will take quite some time before Medicare begins to cover stem cell injections. Many people have found curcumin to help with Pain and inflammation. It needs to be in the right combination with bioperrine. Please see:

  10. Marianne Clark

    May I know how much it cost for the treatment of Shoulder’s “LOST CARTILAGE” ?

    1. Regenexx Team Post author

      It depends on what’s needed in your case and we’d need to examine you to determine that. Shoulder arthritis generally results from instability, and can also originate in the spine. Please see: and

  11. Jeffrey Tanaka

    I have shoulder problems. I tried orthoscopic surgery to clean it up but it did not help. I personally believe most of my problems are due to arthritis. I have small rotator cuff and labrum tears. I have loss of range of motion and strength. I play a lot of pickleball and believe I would play much better if I could regain some range of motion. Do you believe I could get some relief from PRP or stem cell therapy? Thank you.

    1. Regenexx Team

      Hi Jeffrey,
      It’s unfortunately common for shoulder arthroscopy not to help. We treat shoulder arthritis regularly. Please see: To see if your particular issue would be a Candidate, please submit the “Am I a Candidate” form here:, or give us a call at 855 622 7838 for assistance.

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